In past 50 years history, the chemical pesticides and fertilizers have played a crucial role in boosting the agricultural production, however they have a short history in modern agriculture. Their immediate action and low cost managed to bring them rapidly in to the center of attention. Their toxic effects on environment, plant, animal and human life diverted the focus on ecofriendly plant protection.
Biofertilizers are defined as preparations containing living cells or latent cells of efficient strains of microorganisms that help crop plants’ uptake of nutrients by their interactions in the rhizosphere when applied through seed or soil. They accelerate certain microbial processes in the soil which augment the extent of availability of nutrients in a form easily assimilated by plants. The term biofertilizers includes selective micro-organism like bacteria, fungi and algae. Which are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen or convert soluble phosphate and potash in the soil into forms available to the plants. Biofertilizer is a cost effective, eco-friendly & renewable source of land nutrient they play a vital role in maintaining a long term soil fertility & sustainability. Very often microorganisms are not as efficient in natural surroundings as one would expect them to be and therefore artificially multiplied cultures of efficient selected microorganisms play a vital role in accelerating the microbial processes in soil. Use of biofertilizers is one of the important components of integrated nutrient management, as they are cost effective and renewable source of plant nutrients to supplement the chemical fertilizers for sustainable agriculture. Several microorganisms and their association with crop plants are being exploited in the production of biofertilizers. They can be grouped in different ways based on their nature and function.
Rhizobium is a soil habitat bacterium, which can able to colonize the legume roots and fixes the atmospheric nitrogen symbiotically. The morphology and physiology of Rhizobium will vary from free-living condition to the bacteroid of nodules. They are the most efficient biofertilizer as per the quantity of nitrogen fixed concerned. They have seven genera and highly specific to form nodule in legumes, referred as cross inoculation group.
Rhizobium is a genus of Gram-negative soil bacteria that fix nitrogen. Rhizobium forms an endosymbiotic nitrogen fixing association with roots of legumes. The bacteria colonize plant cells within root nodules; here the bacteria converts atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia and then provides organic nitrogenous compounds such as glutamine or ureides to the plant. The plant provides the bacteria organic compounds made by photosynthesis.
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Azospirillum belongs to bacteria and is known to fix the considerable quantity of nitrogen in the range of 20- 40 kg N/ha in the rhizosphere in non- non-leguminous plants such as cereals, millets, Oilseeds, cotton etc. The efficiency of Azospirillium as a Bio-Fertilizer has increased because of its ability of inducing abundant roots in several pants like rice, millets and oilseeds even in upland conditions. Azospirillum fixes considerable quantity of nitrogen fertilizer up to 3 % can be saved by the use of Azospirillum inoculant. Apart from nitrogen fixation, growth promoting substance production (IAA), disease resistance and drought tolerance are some of the additional benefits due to Azospirillum inoculation.
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Azotobacter is a free-living bacterium that can fix atmospheric nitrogen into the soil, being a great source to obtain a natural biofertilizer that can be used in the cultivation of most crops. It is a great source of nitrogen to meet the needs of crops because also has the capabilities to cause are juvenation of soil microbiology to tap out the biological fixation of nitrogen. It is used as a Bio-Fertilizer for all non leguminous plants especially rice, cotton, vegetables etc. Azotobacter cells are not present on the rhizosplane but are abundant in the rhizosphere region. The lack of organic matter in the soil is a limiting factor for the proliferation of Azotobaceter in the soil.
It improves seed germination and plant growth
Azotobacter is tolerant to high salts.
It can benefit crops by Nitrogen fixation, growth promoting substances, fungi static substances
Azotobacter is heaviest breathing organism and requires a large amount of organic carbon for its growth.
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Phosphorus is second only to nitrogen in mineral nutrients most commonly limiting the growth of crops. Phosphorus is an essential element for plant development and growth making up about 0.2 % of plant dry weight. Plants acquire P from soil solution as phosphate anions. However, phosphate anions are extremely reactive and may be immobilized through precipitation with cations such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+ and Al3+, depending on the particular properties of a soil. In these forms, P is highly insoluble and unavailable to plants. As the results, the amount available to plants is usually a small proportion of this total. Several scientists have reported the ability of different bacterial species to solubilize insoluble inorganic phosphate compounds, such as tricalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, and rock phosphate.
The principal mechanism for mineral phosphate solubilization is the production of organic acids, and acidphosphatases play a major role in the mineralization of organic phosphorus in soil. It is generally accepted that the major mechanism of mineral phosphate solubilization is the action of organic acids synthesized by soil microorganisms. Production of organic acids results in acidification of the microbial cell and its surroundings. The production of organic acids by phosphate solubilizing bacteria has been well documented. Gluconic acid seems to be the most frequent agent of mineral phosphate solubilization. Phosphatase are enzymes which hydrolyze the complex organic phosphates in to inorganic phosphates(Pi) by the process dephosphorylation which will be further used by the cell to construct the Nucleic acid, Phospholipids, ATP energy molecule etc.
Bacillus megaterium is phosphate solubilizer. It is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive, endospore forming, species of bacteria used as a soil inoculants in agriculture and horticulture. Bacterium is arranged into the strepto bacillus form. Bacillus megaterium is a rod shaped bacteria and one of the largest eubacteria found in soil. Groups of the bacteria are often found in chains where the cells are joined together by polysaccharides on the cell walls.
Bacillus megaterium is able to survive in some extreme conditions such as desert environments due to the spores it forms. Where there are favorable conditions the spores can survive.
Pseudomonas putida is a phosphate solubilizer. It is gram-negative rod-shaped saprotrophic soil bacterium.
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Biological treatments have been recognized as effective methods of treatment for highly polluted industrial wastewaters. Both anaerobic and aerobic systems are commonly used to treat the waste waters from agro-industrial plants. Anaerobic digestion is a series of biological processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. One of the end products is biogas, which is combusted to generate electricity and heat, or can be processed into renewable natural gas and transportation fuels.
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the process whereby bacteria break down organic material in the absence of air, yielding a biogas containing methane.
The products of this process are:
Biogas (principally methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2))
A solid residue (fibre or digestate) that is similar, but not identical, to compost .
A liquid liquor that can be used as a fertilizer.
Product Name :
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nanozyme Increase the Biogas production efficiency : 90 %
Anaerobic digestion is a process in which the organic waste is decomposed under anaerobic conditions to a variety of end products including methane and carbon dioxide. The process is carried out by hydrolytic enzymes, acidogenic bacteria and finally by methanogenic bacteria for the conversion into methane and carbondioxide. The treated effluents are expected to be reduced in organic and pathogen content and is non-putrescible.
a. Low production of waste biological solids.
2. Low nutrient requirements.
c. Production of methane as an energy source to meet the steam requirement to the extent of 75-100%.
d. Very high loading rates can be achieved.
e. Active-anaerobic sludge can be preserved unfed for many months
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